Sampling uncertainty can depend of various sources:

- the standard deviation of the Binomial distribution
- the sampling uncertainty in terms of Hartley’s information theory [Klir & Folger 1988], where the average uncertainty in the state (acceptable or rejectable) of a certain type of entity as decreased by sampling is:

where *d* is the number of non-conforming items and *p* = d/*N _{sample}*, is the fraction, which is also the probability of sampling that fraction. The average, , is distributed according to the Binomial distribution.

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### References

Klir G J and Folger T A 1988 “Fuzzy sets, uncertainty and information”, Prentice Hall, New Jersey ISBN 0-13-345984-5

L R Pendrill 2008, “Operating ‘cost’ characteristics in sampling by variable and attribute” *Accred. Qual. Assur*., **13**, pp. 619-31, DOI: 10.1007/s00769-008-0438-y

Schneider T D, Stormo G D, Gold L and Ehrenfeuch A 1986 “The information content of binding sites on nucleotide sequences“, *J. Mol. Biol.* **188**, 415 – 31 www.lecb.ncifcrf.gov/~toms/paper/schneider1986

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- Qualitative (Attribute) & Quantitative (Variable) Testing
- Information and measurement
- Bernoulli (go/no-go) trials
- Sampling uncertainties
- Conformity assessment

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