Accuracy experiment

Practical implementation of the definitions of trueness and precision in accuracy experiments

ISO 5725-1 (1994)

Accuracy (trueness and precision) of a measurement or test method is to be determined with a series of test results reported by a number of participating laboratories organised by a project management.

Samples of a certain material or product are sent from a central point to a number of laboratories at different places.

  • the samples shall be identical when sent out to the laboratories
  • the samples shall remain identical during transport and between measurements

Statistical model of accuracy experiment

When estimating accuracy, it is useful to assume that each measurement result, y, is the sum of three components:

y = m + b + e

where, for a certain test object:

m is the accepted reference (or “true”) value

b is the bias

e is the random error in each measurement


The bias, b, of a laboratory

is estimated as



The bias, B, in the measurement method


where u ref the accepted reference (or “true”) value.


The variance in the measurement result, Var(y), is thus the sum of the variances in the bias and the error.

The variance in the bias between laboratories

Var(b) = sL2

The variance in the error for each laboratory:

Var(e) = sW2

can vary from lab to lab.

Repeatability variance


is the average of the own variances of the different laboratories.

Reproducibility variance



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